58 C. TREMOLADA ET AL. to plastic and to differentiate into multiple lineages, including osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic ones (8). Indeed, the International Society for Cellular Therapy define MSCs as a heterogeneous population of progenitor cells expressing a pattern of characteristic, but not specific, surface markers, including CD73, CD90, and CD105, but lacking the expression of hematopoietic markers CD34, CD45, CD14 or CD11, CD79a or CD19, and HLA class II (4). MSCs can be extracted from several body districts, including the adipose and synovial tissues, peripheral blood, skeletal muscle, umbilical cord blood, placenta, and bone marrow. However, an optimal source of MSCs in tissue regeneration and repair has not been yet identified. Indeed, MSCs deriving from different sources have similar, but not equal ability to differentiate into a specific kind of specialized cells. Moreover, the number of cells obtained may depend on the donor age and comorbid conditions.
C Tremolada, G Beltrami, A Magri, F Bianchi, C Ventura, C Di Vito, R Campanella, SE Navone, G Marfia, AI Caplan