Evolution of full facial feminization surgery: creating the gendered face with an all-in-one procedure

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Facial feminization surgery (FFS) has recently gained popularity to enhance the female facial profile and promote a real transformation of the male to female face in transgender patients. The term involves overlapping of the surgical procedures devoted to feminization and represents a dual and reversible procedure unique in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Indeed, FFS envisages modifications of the hard and soft tissues and is both reductive and augmentative. For these reasons, full FFS (F-FFS) is used by surgeons with special expertise in FFS. This study describes a novel approach to F-FFS performed in a single surgery and thus renamed, de facto, all-in-one and representing its most recent evolution. Forty-nine consecutive nonrandomized patients underwent FFS at a private clinical practice (Face Surgery Center, Parma, Italy) between January 2003 and December 2017. Following a retrospective review …


Mirco Raffaini, Raffaella Perello, Carlo Tremolada, Tommaso Agostini


Journal of Craniofacial Surgery